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高级教材语法总结:宾语从句

  什么是宾语从句?它是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中当做宾语,坐落于及物动词、代词或复合谓语以后的从句。实际上这是英语学习中一个必不可少的语法知识点,它有什么关键必须大家掌握和学习培训的?讨论一下英语新概念第二册是怎么为大家解释的。

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什么是宾语从句?它是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中当做宾语,坐落于及物动词、代词或复合谓语以后的从句。实际上这是英语学习中一个必不可少的语法知识点,它有什么关键必须大家掌握和学习培训的?讨论一下英语新概念第二册是怎么为大家解释的。

1. that引导宾语从句时无含意,不当做成份,常省去。

that不引导代词的宾语从句,对于except that, in that, save that, but that等是复合型从属连词。

I know (that) you have met him.

Let's suppose that one day this happens to you.

在及物动词和宾语从句中间经常出现间接宾语(指人)。比如:

I told him (that) he was wrong.

在极少数动词如:think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, calculate, fancy, reckon, be supposed , seem, appear, feel as if, look as if, look like等后边的从句中的否定词常常迁移到主句宾语动词上,这叫否定外置/否定转移。(hope“期待”, guess“觉得”后的宾语从句否定不外置。I hope not.“希望并不是那般的”,是I hope so.的否定式。I don't hope so.是对hope的否定:“我不会希望如此”。)如:

I don't think it will be very cold today.

I don't think you are right.

I don't believe he has finished his work.

留意:

①非务必否定转移。若必须注重从句的否定时也不作迁移。

②不能把全部可否定转移动词的否定句都了解为否定宾语从句,要依据句意或情境而定。

I don't think diplomacy is a field for private enterprise.

We didn't think we'd be this late.

③当think用在一般疑问句中,或主句中的宾语动词与状语并用,或主句中的宾语动词被do注重时,不可以否定转移。

Why do you think we can't change your note?

I do believe Tom never tells a lie.

They still didn't believe that the food would come.

I can't believe that they are married.

④否定转移要用在主句动词为一般现在时的状况。

主句动词为一般过去时、过去完成时、过去进行时、现在完成时、如今完成进行时,或主句动词与神态动词并用,就不可以否定转移。这时若主句动词为否定,应考虑到是不是对主句动词的否定。

I had thought that he would not come.

我已经想起了他不可以来啦。

⑤当宾语从句中有no, never, hardly, not at all, not a bit, not...enough, can't help doing等时不可以否定转移。

I think I can't help laughing if I see it.

I believe he never tells a lie.

很多带宾语补足语的语句要用it作形式宾语,而把宾语从句放置句尾。

We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone.

We thought it a pity that she should have missed the chance.

2. whether, if引导宾语从句:表明“是不是”可交换,英语口语中常见if。

He asked if she would come.

留意下述状况下whether不能用if换:

1)引导主语从句放置句首时。

2)whether后沒有英语单词间距而立即跟or not时。

I don't know whether or not he will come.

3) whether从句作介词宾语时。

They are talking about whether he will win the game.

Everything depends on whether you agree with us.

4)whether后接不定式时。

I don't know whether to attend the meeting.

5)动词discuss, decide的宾语从句时。

3. 连接代词what, who, whose等引导的宾语从句。

Tell me what you want.

Do you know who will come at the meeting?

留意:who, whom依照传统式英语的语法,从句中who所替代的专有名词如果是宾语运用宾格whom,但在英语口语中常见who,如:

Do you know whom (who) he will invite?

①whose, which, what三个词用含有修饰词特性。whose表明全部,意为“谁的”;which意为“哪一个”,what意为“哪些”。如:

Whose book it is not important.

Please tell me which school you want to go.

He didn't know what time it was.

②一般说来,which指的是在一个实际的、较确立的、比较有限的、较小范畴;而what则指较广的或不确立的范畴。如:which food,讲话人一般指眼下的或确立范畴的几类food;what food则指很多food,并且讲话人心里沒有数。

I don't know which / what food you want.

假如范畴很大或是没什么范畴,最好用what food。

4. 连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。

I don't know when the meeting will be held.

Please tell me where I can find Tom.

He explained to me why he was absent from the meeting.

Can you tell me how I can get to the post office?

5. 能用whatever, whoever, whomever, whenever, wherever等引导宾语从句。

Please write down whatever he is saying.

I don't know whoever will come.

I'll do whatever you ask me to.

6. 表明爱憎感情的动词,如:enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, don't mind, resent, appreciate(感谢)等及其一些代词末尾的语句动词如:count on, depend on, rely on, see to, look forward to, be fond of, feel like, see to等后,即便沒有宾补还要先接形式宾语it,再接宾语从句。

I like it when she smiles at me.

I love it when you sing.

I hate it if I am spoken to loudly in public.

除开but, besides, except, in, save, beyond六个代词后跟that引导的宾语从句外,别的代词都不可以。in that是“由于”的含意,其他五个与that配搭全是“除开……”。

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